Teachers or counselors can reinforce taught concepts in spontaneously arising situations (Knaus, 1974, 1977a, 1977b, 2004; Knaus & Haberstroh 1993). For example, asking a student to use a coping skill in a problem situation, when the student does not know the skill, is generally impractical. On the other hand, once the student has learned and practiced an REE concept, promptinga student to use a tested coping strategy, can prove productive. This application prompting method shows students that they truly do have choices in how they respond to problem situations, and can experience a sense of reward from applying a new REE taught skill.
Studies have demonstrated symptoms of at least mild depression in up to a third of patients with smell dysfunction. Interestingly, the reverse is also true: patients with depression often have impaired olfactory function. As might be expected, depression also appears to influence how much people like or dislike smells, whereby unpleasant odours are perceived as more unpleasant, and pleasant odours as less pleasant (ie, an overall negative shift in ‘hedonic’ perception). These changes could be due to altered neuronal processing of odour signals, which has been demonstrated using olfactory electroencephalography, in patients with depression and in healthy participants who’d watched a sad movie .